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Un lointain miroir, le XIVe siècle des calamités (1978)

par Barbara Tuchman

Autres auteurs: Voir la section autres auteur(e)s.

Séries: The Mirror of the Past (1)

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6,1341001,202 (4.14)250
The fourteenth century reflects two contradictory images: on the one hand, a glittering time of crusades and castles, cathedrals and chivalry, and the exquisitely decorated "Books of hours"; and on the other, a time of ferocity and spiritual agony, a world of chaos and the plague. Barbara Tuchman reveals both the great rhythms of history and the grain and texture of domestic life as it was lived. Here are the guilty passions, loyalties and treacheries, political assassinations, sea battles and sieges, corruption in high places and a yearning for reform, satire and humor, sorcery and demonology, and lust and sadism on the stage. Here are proud cardinals, beggars, feminists, university scholars, grocers, bankers, mercenaries, mystics, lawyers and tax collectors, and, dominating all, the knight in his valor and "furious follies," a "terrible worm in an iron cocoon."… (plus d'informations)
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» Voir aussi les 250 mentions

Anglais (89)  Néerlandais (5)  Espagnol (2)  Allemand (1)  Suédois (1)  Islandais (1)  Hébreu (1)  Toutes les langues (100)
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Tuchman, Barbara W. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. 1978. Random House, 1987.
Barbara Tuchman’s readable history of the European late middle ages won a national book award. Academic historians grumped that she used outdated translations and depended too much on secondary sources. Well, OK, though their complaints do sometimes sound a little like jealousy. Certainly, though, the book’s approach to history does seem a bit dated in its great and not-so-great man approach to historical causation. How much different, for instance, would history have been if knights had abandoned the myth of chivalry for a more modern approach to warfare? Maybe a lot, maybe a little, depending on which knight managed it in which battles. Two complaints are harder to dismiss. Tuchman has an if-it-bleeds-it-leads approach to narrative. Good for selling books, but it may miss some important trends. Her narrative style also makes the book heavy on detail at the risk of burying the argument. But the details are fun, and they do often leave one shaking the head in wonder. Finally, the individual characters do come to life in some particularly modern ways. There is a late-century duke of Milan who reminds me a lot of our most recent former president. It is instructive to learn that the 14th century also had more than its share of fake news, especially regarding women and Jews. The book is certainly worth reading, therefore, if only to remind us that plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose. ( )
  Tom-e | Mar 8, 2021 |
Wonderful history, if you're interested in 14th century Mediaeval history, the malfeasance of the Church and an exposure of just how riddled with spin was the mythology of chivalry.
If you want to understand our modern era and its apparent madness[es] (corruption in high places, growing gaps between rich and poor, the impacts of a pandemic and the apparent retention of faith in the insubstantial despite evidence of earthly abuses), then this book will appease you.

'Tis long, but it needs to be.
( )
  StephenKimber | Mar 5, 2021 |
NA
  pszolovits | Feb 3, 2021 |
La historia es uno de los mejores espejos en que podemos mirarnos y reconocer lo que fuimos y lo que seguimos siendo
  socogarv | Jan 20, 2021 |
An amazing collecting of facts, figures and narrative, emphasized by the introduction that outlines the difficulty any researcher faces when looking into this era. Tuchman set out to write about the Black Plague but couldn't distinguish its effects from all the other calamities of the period, leading her to a broader study that centers on the latter half of the 14th century. In addition to the Black Plague and the Hundred Years War, these years also featured (among a multitude of other things) Chaucer and Boccaccio, the "hysterical mystic" Margery Kempe, Thomas Wyclif, Saint Catherine of Siena, the Dance Macabre, and concluded with the disaster at Nicopolis.

France is the setting for nearly all of the action of the Hundred Years War, an event which through its constancy remains the central focus. Tuchman selects a French knight who marries an English princess as an individual to structure her narrative around, since he is conveniently placed at all the major centres of action. She also uses events in the life of Enguerrand de Coucy to explore asides such as the lives of peasants, roles for women, etc. but it is the war's unfurling that primarily directs the action. Early, spectacular English victories created the perception of France as a land of spoils for the taking, while the French were consumed by internal disorders and too frequently prioritized glory over strategy. This war spelled the end for chivalry, Enguerrand arguably the last knight worthy of the name, as softness and immorality consumed it from within, tactics from without.

Tuchman does almost nothing explicit to draw the parallels between the 14th and 20th centuries that she proposes are there. She does not need to. The Hundred Years War contrasts with the World Wars, Black Plague with Spanish Flu (and Covid, if you stretch a bit). The 14th century had its own unpopular wars, political and religious scandals, and horrific acts of anti-Semitism. Should a time machine hurl you randomly into the past, pray you do not land here. A church fallen into usury and schism, random taxation to the point of starving its people and destroying their livelihoods, no recourse to justice or the law, no protection from attack by violent roving bands, unpredictable recursions of the plague, a dearth of heroes or hope ... The common people saw no ray of light in any direction, nor indication how one might come. If they rose up in violence, as they tried multiple times, they were put down like dogs or worse. In place of Cold War gloom they awaited the end times, but with the hope of something good to come afterwards. There was no other hope to cling to.

As always after reading a book like this, the details begin to fade. I'll retain my impression of an age of chaos, when Western civilization was at lowest tide since the fall of Rome. In her epilogue, Tuchman briefly covers the 15th century in as many pages to demonstrate how a stumbling end to the Hundred Years War, a resolution to the schism, the dawn of the printing press and the age of exploration slowly began to point the way out of these doldrums. I wish she'd had the lifetimes necessary to carry this on as a series, or that I could find a similar layperson's overview of every historical century. Perhaps there are for most, but I'd wager this one to be a standout entry. ( )
3 voter Cecrow | Aug 29, 2020 |
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Nom de l'auteur(e)RôleType d'auteurŒuvre ?Statut
Tuchman, Barbaraauteur(e) principal(e)toutes les éditionsconfirmé
May, NadiaNarrateurauteur secondairequelques éditionsconfirmé
Sliedrecht-Smit, J.C.Traducteurauteur secondairequelques éditionsconfirmé
Spaans-van der Bijl, J.Traducteurauteur secondairequelques éditionsconfirmé
Vries, S. deDirecteur de publicationauteur secondairequelques éditionsconfirmé
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" For mankind is ever the same and nothing is lost out of nature, though everything is altered. "

John Dryden
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The genesis of this book was a desire to find out what were the effects on society of the most lethal disaster of recorded history-that is to say, of the Black Death of 1348-50, which killed an estimated one third of the population living between India and Iceland.
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The fourteenth century reflects two contradictory images: on the one hand, a glittering time of crusades and castles, cathedrals and chivalry, and the exquisitely decorated "Books of hours"; and on the other, a time of ferocity and spiritual agony, a world of chaos and the plague. Barbara Tuchman reveals both the great rhythms of history and the grain and texture of domestic life as it was lived. Here are the guilty passions, loyalties and treacheries, political assassinations, sea battles and sieges, corruption in high places and a yearning for reform, satire and humor, sorcery and demonology, and lust and sadism on the stage. Here are proud cardinals, beggars, feminists, university scholars, grocers, bankers, mercenaries, mystics, lawyers and tax collectors, and, dominating all, the knight in his valor and "furious follies," a "terrible worm in an iron cocoon."

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